Islamic Calendar - Hijri Calendar
Islamic Year - Islamic Hijri Calendar - Months in Islamic calendar - Muslims Hijri Calendar - Monthly Hijri Calendar - Islamic Religious Festival Calendar
Islamic Calendar - Hijri Calendar
The Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri calendar, is a lunar calendar that is used by Muslims around the world to determine the dates of Islamic holidays and events. It is based on the lunar cycles and consists of 12 lunar months, each lasting 29 or 30 days. The Islamic calendar is used in conjunction with the solar calendar to determine Islamic dates.
The Islamic calendar began in the year 622 CE, which is known as the Hijra, the year in which the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) migrated from Mecca to Medina. This year is considered the starting point of the Islamic calendar and is considered the first year of the Islamic era. The Islamic calendar has 12 months, each consisting of 29 or 30 days. The months of the Islamic calendar are:
- Rabi’ al-awwal
- Rabi’ al-Thani
- Jumada al-awwal
- Jumada al-Thani
- Dhu al-Qi’dah
- Dhu al-Hijjah
The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, which means that the months are based on the cycles of the moon. Because the lunar year is shorter than the solar year, the Islamic calendar is approximately 11 days shorter than the solar calendar. As a result, Islamic holidays and events fall on different dates each year in the solar calendar.
One of the most important events in the Islamic calendar is the month of Ramadan, during which Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset and engage in increased prayer and spiritual reflection. The end of Ramadan is marked by the holiday of Eid al-Fitr.
Another important event in the Islamic calendar is the Hajj, the annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, which takes place during the month of Dhu al-Hijjah. The Hajj is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and is mandatory for all able-bodied Muslims who can afford to make the journey.
The Islamic calendar also marks the birth and death anniversaries of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and other important figures in Islamic history. These events are known as Mawlid and Urs, respectively, and are celebrated with special prayers and ceremonies.
The Islamic calendar is used by Muslims around the world to determine the dates of religious holidays and events. It is based on the lunar cycles and consists of 12 lunar months, each lasting 29 or 30 days. The Islamic calendar is used in conjunction with the solar calendar to determine Islamic dates. Because the lunar year is shorter than the solar year, the Islamic calendar is approximately 11 days shorter than the solar calendar. As a result, Islamic holidays and events fall on different dates each year in the solar calendar. The Islamic calendar is an important part of Islamic culture and tradition and is used to mark important events in Islamic history and to celebrate religious holidays and ceremonies.
The new moon marks the beginning of each new lunar month and it is easy for people to see the new moon and know that a new month has begun. This probably explains why most ancient civilizations such as the Babylonians, the Jews, the Greeks and the Egyptians in the Middle East, the Aztecs and the Incas of the West, and the Hindus and the Chinese of the East used this system. Interestingly, the English word ‘month’ is derived from the word ‘moon’.
Origin and Significance of the Hijri Calendar:
The Islamic Calendar was started by the second Caliph Umar (R.A) in 16 AH/ 637 CE. The event of the Hijrah, the migration of the Beloved Prophet Muhammad (Salla Allahu ta’ala alayhi wa Sallam) from Makkah to Madinah in 622 CE, was chosen to begin the Islamic Calendar because it was the first major sacrifice made by the whole Ummah for the preservation of Islam in its formative period. The Caliph Umar (R.A) is reported to have remarked: “The Hijrah has separated truth from falsehood, therefore, let it become the Epoch of the Era”. The Hijrah year reminds Muslims every year of the sacrifices made by the first Muslims and should prepare them to do the same. The constant use of the Hijri Calendar for acts of worship and as a frame of reference to major historical events will help Muslims keep links with their roots and further enhance their knowledge of their religion and history.
Determining Islamic Dates:
Islamic dates are determined by the actual visibility of the moon as the Beloved Prophet (Salla Allahu ta’ala alayhi wa Sallam) said: “Fast by seeing it (the moon) and end the fast by seeing it”.
Muslim scholars have interpreted this Prophetic saying in two different ways. Some scholars have held the view that each location has its own sighting of the moon (Ikhtilaf al-Mutali‘). But most scholars have taken the words “fast by seeing it” (sumu li ru’yatihi) as a general command to all Muslims and not individual sectors of the community. Hence they regard the sighting of the moon in one region as valid for people of another region, provided the news of sighting the moon reaches them through authentic means. In this regard, it has been said that a person who learns about the sighting of the moon in good time to be able to utilize it for fasting, for ending the fast or for sacrifice, must definitely do so. The texts and the reports from the Pious Predecessors point to this. Limiting this to a certain distance or country would contradict both reason and the Shari‘ah.